Endeavors to ensure corporate and holistic management of risks that the CBRT may face are carried out by the Markets Department.
Under the financial risk management, credit, market and liquidity risks that the CBRT may be exposed to due to its operations are managed in cooperation with business units. Almost all financial risks resulting from the CBRT’s operations emerge in the course of fulfilling legal duties such as implementing monetary and exchange rate policies, managing foreign exchange reserves, and providing certain banking services to the banking sector and the government. Financial risks that the CBRT encounters while implementing monetary and exchange rate policies in its capacity as the monetary authority are a consequence of the policy targets chosen. On the other hand, FX reserve management related financial risks emerge as a consequence of an investment preference. However, the CBRT manages FX reserves within investment criteria defined in the Guidelines and within objectives and limits set by the benchmark portfolio and endeavors to minimize such risks by managing them in a conservative manner.
The credit risk mainly results from investment transactions performed during FX reserve management; open market operations (OMO), Interbank Money Market (IMM) transactions and transactions of intraday liquidity facility provided to banks within the framework of monetary policy practices. The CBRT’s credit risk arising from monetary and exchange rate policy related transactions was managed by collateralizing the whole amount of transactions, including a specified amount of margin, with securities of very high credit worthiness that can also be traded on secondary markets (such as FX deposits, GDDS, and securities issued by advanced countries’ treasuries or by international institutions), and by regularly monitoring the current risks and asking for additional collateral.
The FX reserve management related credit risk is managed based on the principle of minimizing the trading partners’ probability of default and the financial loss that may occur in case of default. Accordingly, the CBRT employed a risk management procedure with three pillars to minimize the credit risk it becomes exposed to during its FX reserve management. Firstly, it limited its investments to leading international financial institutions and borrowers with high credit quality that comply with the minimum credit rating criterion defined by the Guidelines based on credit ratings given by international credit rating agencies. Secondly, the total of transaction limits defined to restrict all credit risks, including the settlement risk, that arise from transactions with financial institutions was limited to a specified ratio of manageable reserves. Thirdly, among the institutions complying with the Guideline defined minimum credit rating criterion, those which could also conduct transactions by using main and financial analysis methods were identified, and a credit risk limit was defined for each one. The total of these limits was capped by a specified ratio of the CBRT’s FX reserves. In this scope, credit risk indicators of all the CBRT’s trading partners were closely monitored and reported to the senior management.
During the management of FX reserves, exchange rate, interest rate and price fluctuations in international markets also lead to market risk. Under the market risk management, compliance with the objectives and limits defined by the annually set benchmark portfolio was monitored and reported to the senior management.
Another important risk encountered during reserve management is the liquidity risk. This risk refers to the probability of incurring loss when meeting sudden unpredictable need for FX liquidity. To manage liquidity risk, compliance with the limits set by the benchmark portfolio was monitored and reported to the senior management.
Other than the FX reserve management, credit, market and liquidity risks on the CBRT’s balance sheet were also measured, monitored and reported.
Under the operational risk management, the CBRT engages in activities consisting of defining and measuring operational risk factors, reporting these risks and making risk assessments on business continuity management. Accordingly, risk based processes at the CBRT are analyzed by means of risk matrices, detected key risks as well as the controls to contain these risks are assessed, and corrective and preventive actions are planned after the residual risks are measured. Regarding the incident record reporting practice, operational risk incidents at the CBRT as well as the measures in effect are monitored and reported. For business continuity management purposes, the relevant legislation and the business continuity plan were reviewed in 2020, and drafts for necessary updates were drawn up to be submitted to the approval of the senior management.
Lastly, to ensure that the CBRT is protected against risks related to laundering of proceeds of crime and financing of terrorism and that the CBRT’s activities are carried out in accordance with the national and international legislation on the prevention of the laundering of proceeds of crime and financing of terrorism, monitoring and controlling activities regarding the transactions and customers in certain risk groups as well as transactions with risky countries were ensured. Moreover, work was carried out with national stakeholders on the prevention of the laundering of proceeds of crime and financing of terrorism crime.